Morland addition gadget
In 1666 the English inventor and diplomat Sir Samuel Morland (1625-1695), inspired by the Pascaline, invented this little gadget for adding numbers. During the reign of King Charles II (1660-85) Morland was the English envoy at the court of Queen Christine of Sweden. There he first saw a version of the 2-species Pascaline, which had been presented in 1649 to the scientifically interested queen by its proud inventor. After his return to England, Morland designed this addition gadget, of which three originals have survived (in the Science Museum, London (2) and the Old Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1)). Akin to Pascal’s machine, Morland’s gadget features a row of cogwheels which can be set with a stylus. These are inscribed with English currency units. But in contrast to the Pascaline, there are no cogwheels for subtraction (with complementary numbers), nor a result mechanism. Above all, however, there was no tens-carry mechanism – this had to be performed manually using the setting discs of the revolution counter along the top. On account of the missing tens-carry mechanism, Morland’s invention is by definition not a machine but a gadget or device. It thus could not compete with the Pascaline and was only used as an adding aid for merchants. Its limited use was criticized by contemporaries like Samuel Pepys. This replica with its 120 or so parts was made by Ullrich Wolff from a replica in the IBM Collection, New York. As no tens-carry mechanism had to be constructed, the main problem lay in the production of the leather case reinforced with cardboard and covered with silk. It was made by the Bonn artist Bernhard Kremser.